FAO World Reference
Laboratory for
Foot-and-Mouth Disease

Bulgaria: 2011
Asia 1: 2011
Bulgaria: 2011
Far East: 2010



  FMD Situation in Bulgaria,  2010-2011
Begoņa Valdazo-Gonzalez, Nick J. Knowles, Jef Hammond and Donald King

OIE/FAO/Defra Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD), Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, United Kingdom.
  The FAO/OIE/Defra Reference Laboratory for FMD at the Institute for Animal Health (UK) has determined the full genome sequence for a representative serotype O FMDV isolate (O/BUL/1/2010) recovered from the recent outbreaks of FMD that have occurred in Bulgaria. Since the end of December 2010 three cases of FMD have been reported in south-eastern Bulgaria, close to the border with Turkish Thrace. VP1 sequence analysis on samples received from the first case of FMD in Bulgaria in a wild boar was carried out at the IAH and showed that the virus belongs to the MIDDLE EAST-SOUTH ASIA (ME-SA) topotype (PanAsia-2 lineage, ANT-10 sub-lineage) and is closely related to viruses found in Turkey and Iran (sharing nucleotide identities of >99 percent; http://www.wrlfmd.org/fmd_genotyping/euro/bul.htm. Our studies have shown that the ANT-10 sub-lineage of the PanAsia-2 lineage (which was derived from the earlier PanAsia lineage) has recently become widespread in Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.

A full genome sequence (8180 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tail) was generated from viral RNA extracted from an epithelial lesion collected from a wild boar that was shot in the Burgas region of Bulgaria on 30 Dec 2010. The sequence of O/BUL/2010 is available as a draft GenBank submission. The full genome sequence of a closely related virus isolated from an outbreak in Turkey is currently being determined at the IAH for comparative purposes.

During previous FMD outbreaks in the UK (2001 and 2007), full genome sequence data has been used to reconstruct transmission pathways at the farm-to-farm level: for examples see Cottam et al. (2006) and Cottam et al. (2008). This approach could now be used to support epidemiological investigations that are being conducted to understand the spread of the virus to, and within, Bulgaria.  

Further information, including detailed laboratory RT-PCR protocols used to generate this sequence, can be obtained from the WRLFMD:
begona.valdazo-gonzalez@bbsrc.ac.uk, nick.knowles@iah.ac.uk, jef.hammond@bbsrc.ac.uk or donald.king@bbsrc.ac.uk.


Cottam et al. (2006). Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom. J. Virol. 80: 11274.

Cottam et al. (2008). Transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the United Kingdom in 2007. PLoS Pathogens 4: e1000050.

  WRLFMD web page for:

Š The Pirbright Institute
, 2011