FAO World Reference
Laboratory for
Foot-and-Mouth Disease

Far East: 2010
Asia 1: 2011
Bulgaria: 2011
Far East: 2010



  FMD Situation in the Far East - 2010
  01-May-2010: In a letter to the Veterinary Record, Paton et al. (2010) highlighted the unusual recent spread of FMD in the Far East and warned of the possibility of disease spread both within and outside the region, as happened during the FMD O PanAsia pandemic of 1999-2001 (Knowles et al., 2001; Knowles et al., 2005).
  08-May-2010: FMDV type O, Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype, Mya-98 lineage, has now been confirmed in Hong Kong SAR, Republic of Korea and Japan. The first outbreak of FMD O to occur on mainland China (Guangdong province) has also been confirmed to belong to the SEA topotype (Li, 2010). The genetic identity of the recent outbreak of type O in Mongolia has yet to be determined.

14-May-2010: At the FAO/OIE Reference Laboratory for FMD at the Institute for Animal Health (UK) we have determined the full genome sequence for a representative serotype O isolate recovered from the recent outbreaks of FMD that have occurred in the Far East (Hamid et al., unpublished data). The full genome sequence (8123 nucleotides) was generated from an isolate obtained from a pig with epithelial lesions that was sampled in Hong Kong SAR on 03/03/2010. This sequence has been submitted to the public databases and a draft version of this sequence is available here (accession number HM229661).


During previous FMD outbreaks in the UK (2001 and 2007), full genome sequence data has been used to reconstruct transmission pathways at the farm-to-farm level: for examples see Cottam et al., 2006 and Cottam et al., 2008. This approach could be used now to support epidemiological investigations that are being conducted to understand the regional and local spread of the virus in Asia. This sequence can also be used to check the suitability of molecular tests used for the diagnosis of FMD in the region.


Further information, including detailed laboratory RT-PCR protocols used to generate these sequences, can be obtained from faizah.hamid@bbsrc.ac.uk or donald.king@bbsrc.ac.uk.


Cottam et al., (2006) Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom. Journal of Virology 80: 11274. 

  Cottam et al., (2008) Transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the United Kingdom in 2007. PLoS Pathogens 4: e1000050.
  Hamid, F.N., Wadsworth, J., Knowles, N.J. and King, D.P. Full genome sequence of FMDV (serotype O) in Hong Kong (2010). Unpublished.
  Knowles, N.J., Samuel, A.R., Davies, P.R., Kitching, R.P. and Donaldson, A.I. (2001). Outbreak of foot‑and‑mouth disease virus serotype O in the UK caused by a pandemic strain. Veterinary Record 148: 258-259.
  Knowles, N.J., Samuel, A.R., Davies, P.R., Midgley, R.J. and Valarcher, J.-F. (2005). Evolution and spread of a pandemic strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 1887-1893.
  Li, J. (2010). Situation and control of FMD in mainland, China. 16th OIE Sub-Commission Meeting for FMD Control in South East Asia, Vientiane, Lao PDR, 15-19 March 2010.
  Paton DJ, King DP, Knowles NJ and Hammond J. (2010). Recent spread of foot-and-mouth disease in the Far East. Veterinary Record 166: 569-570.


The Pirbright Institute
, 2011