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  Molecular Epidemiology of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus – A Bibliography
 

Compiled by Nick J. Knowles

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Ansell, D.M., Samuel, A.R., Carpenter, W.C. and Knowles, N.J., 1994. Genetic relationships between foot-and-mouth disease type Asia 1 viruses. Epidemiol. Infect. 112, 213-224.

Araujo, J.P. Jr, Montassier, H.J. and Pinto, A.A. (2002). Extensive antigenic and genetic variation among foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses isolated from the 1994 and 1995 foci in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vet Microbiol. 84: 15-27.

Armstrong, R.M, Rendle, R.A.S.T., Ferris, N.P., Samuel, A.R. and Knowles, N.J., 1991. Genetic and antigenic studies on foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from samples collected in Turkey in 1991. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Ankara, Turkey, 1-5 October, 1991. Rome: FAO, pp. 63-69.

Armstrong, R.M., Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J. and Uluturk, S., 1992. Genetic studies on foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from samples collected in Turkey. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Mittelhausen, Switzerland, 8-11 September, 1992. FAO, Rome, pp. 64-69.

Armstrong, R.M., Samuel, A.R., Carpenter, W.C., Rama Kant and Knowles, N.J., 1994. A comparative study of serological and biochemical methods for strain differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses. Vet. Microbiol. 39, 285-298.

B

Bastos, A.D.S., 1998. Detection and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 65, 37-47.

Bastos, A.D., Boshoff, C.I., Keet, D.F., Bengis, R.G. and Thomson, G.R., 2000. Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus between African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and impala (Aepyceros melampus) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Epidemiol. Infect. 124, 591-598.

Bastos, A.D.S., Haydon, D.T., Forsberg, R., Knowles, N.J., Anderson, E.C., Bengis, R.G., Nel, L.H. and Thomson, G.R., 2001. Genetic heterogeneity of SAT-1 type foot-and-mouth disease viruses in southern Africa. Arch. Virol. 146, 1537-1551.

Beck, E. and Strohmaier, K., 1987. Subtyping of European foot-and-mouth disease virus strains by nucleotide sequence determination. J. Virol. 61, 1621-1629.

C

Carrillo, C., Dopazo, J., Moya, A., Gonzalez, M., Martínez, M.A., Saiz, J.C. and Sobrino, F., 1990. Comparison of vaccine strains and the virus causing the 1986 foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in Spain: epizootiological analysis. Virus Res. 15, 45-56.

D

Dawe, P.S., Flanagan, F.O, Madekurozwa, R.L., Sorensen, K.J., Anderson, E.C., Foggin, C.M., Ferris, N.P. and Knowles, N.J., 1994. Natural transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus from African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) to cattle in a wildlife area of Zimbabwe. Vet. Rec. 134, 230-232.

Dolja, V.V. and Carrington, J.C., 1992. Evolution of positive strand RNA viruses. Seminars in Virology 3, 315-326.

E

F

Freiberg, B., Rahman, M.M. and Marquardt, O., 1999. Genetical and immunological analysis of recent Asian type A and O foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates. Virus Genes 19, 167-182.

G

George, M., Venkataramanan, R., Gurumurthy, C.B. and Hemadri, D., 2001a. The non-structural leader protein gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus is highly variable between serotypes. Virus Genes 22, 271-278.

George, M., Venkataramanan, R., Pattnaik, B., Sanyal, A., Gurumurthy, C.B., Hemadri, D. and Tosh, C., 2001b. Sequence analysis of the RNA polymerase gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia1. Virus Genes. 22, 21-26.

Gurumurthy, C.B., Sanyal, A., Venkataramanan, R., Tosh, C., George, M. and Hemadri, D., 2002. Genetic diversity in the VP1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype Asia 1. Arch. Virol. 147, 85-102.

H

Heath, L.E., van Rensburg, H.G., Vosloo, W. and Nel, L.H., 2001. The 3A non-structural-protein coding region of the southern African SAT type isolates differs from that of other foot-and-mouth disease viruses. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res. 68, 253-262.

Hemadri, D., Tosh, C., Venkataramanan, R., Sanyal, A., Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J. and Kitching, R.P., 2000. Genetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O isolates responsible for field outbreaks in India between 1993 and 1999. Epidemiol. Infect. 125, 729-736.

Hemadri, D., Tosh, C., Sanyal, A. And Venkataramanan, R. (2002). Emergence of a new strain of type O foot-and-mouth disease virus: its phylogenetic and evolutionary relationship with the PanAsia pandemic strain. Virus Genes 25: 23-34.

Huang, C.C., Lin, Y.L., Huang, T.S., Tu, W.J., Lee, S.H., Jong, M.H. and Lin, S.Y., 2001. Molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from ruminants in Taiwan in 1999-2000. Vet. Microbiol. 81, 193-205.

I

Islam, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Adam, K.H. and Marquardt, O., 2001. Epidemiological implications of the molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated between 1996 and 2000 in Bangladesh. Virus Genes 23, 203-210.

J

K

Keet, D.F., Hunter, P., Bengis, R.G., Bastos, A. and Thomson, G.R., 1996. The 1992 foot-and-mouth disease epizootic in the Kruger National Park. J. S. Afr. Vet. Assoc. 67, 83-87.

Knowles, N.J., 1990a. Molecular and antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus. M.Phil. Thesis, Council for National Academic Awards, 166 pp.

Knowles, N.J., 1990b. A method for direct nucleotide sequencing of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA for epidemiological studies. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Lindholm, Denmark, 25-29 June, 1990. FAO, Rome, Appendix 06-112.

Knowles, N.J. and Davies, P.R., 2000. Origin of recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in North Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Borovets, Bulgaria, 5-8 September, 2000. FAO, Rome, Appendix 3, 39-45.

Knowles, N.J. and Davies, P.R., 2002. Molecular epidemiological studies on recently isolated foot-and-mouth disease viruses. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of EUFMD, Cesme, Izmir, Turkey, 17-20 September 2002. Rome: FAO, Appendix 2, 38-47 + 8 pages of figures.

Knowles, N.J. and Samuel, A.R., 1995. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and cycle sequencing of the 1D (VP1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease viruses. Report of the session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-mouth Disease held jointly with the FMD Sub-group of the Scientific Veterinary Committee of the Commission of the European Community, Mödling, Vienna, Austria, 19-22 September, 1994. FAO, Rome, Appendix 8, 45-53.

Knowles, N.J. and Samuel, A.R., 1998a. Molecular techniques in foot-and-mouth disease epidemiology. Towards Livestock Disease Diagnosis and Control in the 21st Century: proceedings of an International Symposium on Diagnosis and Control of Livestock Diseases jointly organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, held in Vienna, 7-11 April 1997. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, pp. 185-201.

Knowles, N.J. and Samuel, A.R., 1998b. RT-PCR and Sequencing Protocols for the Molecular Epidemiology of Exotic Virus Diseases of Animals. Pirbright: Institute for Animal Health, 37 pp. (available in Adobe portable document format from:
 http://www.iah.bbsrc.ac.uk/virus/Picornaviridae/Aphthovirus/Protocol.pdf)

Knowles, N.J. and Samuel, A.R., 2003. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Research 91, 65-80.

Knowles, N.J., Marquardt, O. and Samuel, A.R., 1988. Antigenic and molecular characterization of isolates from recent outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the Federal Republic of Germany. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Prague, Czechoslovakia. FAO, Rome, Appendix 24, 149-154.

Knowles, N.J., Ansell, D.M. and Samuel, A.R., 1998. Molecular comparison of recent foot-and-mouth disease type A viruses from West Africa with historical and reference virus strains. Report of the session of the Research Group of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Aldershot, United Kingdom, 14-18 September 1998. FAO, Rome, Appendix 4, 41-48.

Knowles, N.J., Samuel, A.R., Davies, P.R., Kitching, R.P., Venkataramanan, R., Kanno, T., Scherbakov, A.V., Drygin, V.V., Zhao, Q.-Z. and Xie, Q.-G., 2000. Emergence of a pandemic strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Borovets, Bulgaria, 5-8 September, 2000. FAO, Rome, Appendix 1, 20-31.

Knowles, N.J., Davies, P.R. and Samuel, A.R., 2001a. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus: the current situation in Europe and the Middle East. Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Island of Moen, Denmark, 12-15 September 2001. Rome: FAO, Appendix 3: 38-47.

Knowles, N.J., Davies, P.R., Henry, T., O’Donnell, V., Pacheco, J.M. and Mason, P.W., 2001b. Emergence in Asia of foot-and-mouth disease viruses with altered host range: characterization of alterations in the 3A protein. J. Virol. 75, 1551-1556.

Knowles, N.J., Samuel, A.R., Davies, P.R., Kitching, R.P. and Donaldson, A.I., 2001c. Outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in the UK caused by a pandemic strain. Vet. Rec. 148, 258-259.

König, G., Blanco, C., Knowles, N.J., Palma, E.L., Maradei, E. and Piccone, M.E., 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in Argentina. Virus Genes 23, 175-182.

Krebs, O. and Marquardt, O., 1992. Identification and characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus O1 Burgwedel/1987 as an intertypic recombinant. J. Gen. Virol. 73, 613-619.

Krebs, O., Berger, H.-G. and Marquardt, O., 1991a. The capsid protein-coding sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus O2 Brescia. Arch. Virol. 120, 135-143.

Krebs, O., Berger, H-G., Niedbalski, W. and Marquardt, O., 1991b. Foot-and-mouth disease virus O1 Lombardy is biochemically related to O2 isolates. Virus Genes 5, 255-266.

L

Leister, D., Adam, K-H. and Marquardt, O., 1993. Co-replication of several isotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus. J. Gen. Virol. 74, 2753-2757.

M

Marquardt, O. and Adam, K-H., 1989. Sequences of capsid protein VP1 of two type A foot-and-mouth disease viruses. Virus Genes 2, 283-291.

Marquardt, O. and Adam., K-H., 1990. FMDV subtyping by sequencing VP1 genes. Advances in Veterinary Virology: Proceedings of the 1st Congress of the European Society for Veterinary Virology, Liege, 1989. Vet. Microbiol. 23, 175-183.

Marquardt, O. and Krebs, O., 1992. Outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease near Hannover in 1987 and 1989: evidence for two strains of virus. Tierarztliche Umschau 47, 137-140.

Marquardt, O. and Haas, B., 1998. VP1-coding sequences of recent isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus types A, O and Asia1. Virus Genes 16, 185-193.

Marquardt, O. and Freiberg, B., 2000. Antigenic variation among foot-and-mouth disease virus type A field isolates of 1997-1999 from Iran. Vet. Microbiol. 74, 377-386.

Marquardt, O., Rahman, M.M. and Freiberg, B., 2000. Genetic and antigenic variance of foot-and-mouth disease virus type Asia1. Arch Virol. 145, 149-157.

Martínez, M.A., Hernández, J., Piccone, M.E., Palma, E.L., Domingo, E., Knowles, N.J. and Mateu, M.G., 1991. Two mechanisms of antigenic diversification of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virology 184, 695-706.

Martínez, M.A., Dopazo, J., Hernández, J., Mateu, M.G., Sobrino, F., Domingo, E. and Knowles, N.J., 1992. Evolution of the capsid protein genes of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Antigenic variation without accumulation of amino acid substitutions over six decades. J. Virol. 66, 3557-3565.

Mason, P.W., Pacheco, J.M., Zhao, Q.-Z. and Knowles, N.J., 2002. Comparisons of the complete genomes of Asian, African and European isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease virus type O pandemic strain (PanAsia). Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of EUFMD, Cesme, Izmir, Turkey, 17-20 September 2002. Rome: FAO, Appendix 22, 179-186 + 3 pages of figures.

Mason, P.W., Pacheco, J.M., Zhao, Q.-Z. and Knowles, N.J., 2003. Comparisons of the complete genomes of Asian, African and European isolates of a recent foot-and-mouth disease virus type O pandemic strain (PanAsia). Journal of General Virology 84, 1583-1593.

Mateu, M.G., Martínez, M.A., Capucci, L., Andreu, D., Giralt, E., Sobrino, F., Brocchi, E, and Domingo, E., 1990. A single amino acid substitution affects multiple overlapping epitopes in the major antigenic site of foot-and-mouth disease virus of serotype C. J. Gen. Virol. 71, 629-637.

Muthuchelvan, D., Venkataramanan, R., Hemadri, D., Sanyal, A. and Tosh, C. (2001). Sequence analysis of recent Indian isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes O, A and Asia 1 from clinical materials. Acta Virol. 45: 159-167.

N

Nayak, B., Pattnaik, B., Tosh, C., Sanyal, A., Hemadri, D., Patil, S.S., and Venkataramanan, R., 2001. Genetic and antigenic analysis of type A foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in India during 1987-1996. Acta Virol. 45, 13-21.

O

P

Pattnaik, B., Venkataramanan, R., Tosh, C., Sanyal, A., Hemadri, D., Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J. and Kitching, R.P., 1998. Genetic heterogeneity of Indian field isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O as revealed by partial sequencing of 1D gene. Virus Res. 55, 115-127.

Piccone, M.E., Kaplan, G., Giavedoni, L., Domingo, E. and Palma, E.L., 1988. VP1 of serotype C foot-and-mouth disease viruses: long-term conservation of sequences. J. Virol. 62, 1469-1473.

Q

R

Reid, S.M., Ferris, N.P., Hutchings, G.H., De Clercq, K., Newman, B.J., Knowles, N.J. and Samuel, A.R. (2001). Diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease by RT-PCR: use of phylogenetic data to evaluate primers for the typing of viral RNA in clinical samples. Archives of Virology 146: 2421-2434.

S

Sangare, O., Bastos, A.D.S., Marquardt, O., Venter, E.H., Vosloo, W. and Thomson, G.R., 2001. Molecular epidemiology of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus with emphasis on West and South Africa. Virus Genes 22, 345-351.

Saiz, J., Sobrino, F. and Dopazo, J., 1993. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus type O. J. Gen. Virol. 74, 2281-2285.

Samuel, A.R. and Knowles, N.J., 1988. Serological and biochemical study of an isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A from Bavaria in 1984. Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 7, 365-373.

Samuel, A.R. and Knowles, N.J., 2001. Foot-and-mouth disease virus: cause of the recent crisis for the UK livestock industry. Trends in Genetics 17, 421-424.

Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J. and Kitching, R.P., 1988. Serological and biochemical analysis of some recent type A foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates from the Middle East. Epidemiol. Infect. 101, 577-590.

Samuel, A.R., Ansell, D.M., Rendle, R.T., Armstrong, R.M., Davidson, F.L., Knowles, N.J. and Kitching, R.P., 1993. Field and laboratory analysis of an outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in Bulgaria in 1991. Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 12, 839-848.

Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J., Kitching, R.P. and Hafez, S.M., 1997. Molecular analysis of type O foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated in Saudi Arabia between 1983 and 1995. Epidemiol. Infect. 119, 381-389.

Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J. and Mackay, D.K.J., 1999. Genetic analysis of type O viruses responsible for epidemics of foot-and-mouth disease in North Africa. Epidemiol. Infect. 122, 529-538.

Samuel, A.R. and Knowles, N.J., 2001. Foot-and-mouth disease type O viruses exhibit genetically and geographically distinct evolutionary lineages (topotypes). J. Gen. Virol. 82, 609-621.

Singh, M., Mohan, B.M. and Suryanarayana, V.V.S., 1996. Serological and molecular analysis of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from disease outbreaks in India during 1987-91. Virus Res. 43, 45-55.

Stram, Y., Chai, D., Fawzy, H., Molad, T., Meiri, N., Van-Ham, M., EL-Kilani, S., Fahamy, F., Moussa, A. and Yadin, H., 1995. Molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Israel in 1994 and in other Middle-Eastern countries in the years 1992-1994. Arch. Virol. 140, 1791-1797.

Suryanarayana, V., Tulasiram, P., Prabhudas, K.S., Misra, L.D. and Natarajan, C. (1998). The foot and mouth disease virus type O outbreak of 1992 is not related to vaccine strain (O/R2/75). Virus Genes. 16: 167-172.

T

Thevasagayam, S.J., 1996. Molecular and serological characterisation of Southern African Territory (SAT) serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Ph.D thesis, University of Hertfordshire, UK, 160 pp.

Thomson, G.R., Vosloo, W., Esterhuysen, J.J. and Bengis, R.G., 1992. Maintenance of foot and mouth disease viruses in buffalo (Syncerus caffer Sparrman, 1779) in southern Africa. Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 11, 1097-1107.

Tosh, C., Sanyal, A., Hemadri, D., and Venkataramanan, R., 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in India between 1977 and 2000. Arch. Virol. 147, 493-513.

Tulasiram, P., Tyagi, M., Srinivas, K., Prabhudas, K., Natarajan, C. and Suryanarayana, V., 1997. Antigenic variation in foot and mouth disease virus type Asia 1 isolates circulated during 1993-95 in India. Virus Genes 15, 247-253.

Tsai, C.P., Pan, C.H., Liu, M.Y., Lin, Y.L., Chen, C.M., Huang, T.S., Cheng, I.C., Jong, M.H. and Yang, P.C., 2000. Molecular epidemiological studies on foot-and-mouth disease type O Taiwan viruses from the 1997 epidemic. Vet. Microbiol. 74, 207-216.

U

V

van Rensburg, H., Haydon, D., Joubert, F., Bastos, A., Heath, L. and Nel, L., 2002. Genetic heterogeneity in the foot-and-mouth disease virus Leader and 3C proteinases. Gene 289, 19-29.

Vosloo, W., Knowles, N.J. and Thomson, G.R., 1992. Genetic relationships between southern African SAT-2 isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Epidemiol. Infect. 109, 547-558.

Vosloo, W., Kirkbride, E., Bengis, R.G., Keet, D.F. and Thomson, G.R., 1995. Genome variation in the SAT types of foot-and-mouth disease viruses prevalent in buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park and other regions of southern Africa, 1986-93. Epidemiol. Infect. 114, 203-218.

Vosloo, W., Bastos, A.D., Kirkbride, E., Esterhuysen, J.J., van Rensburg, D.J., Bengis, R.G., Keet, D.W. and Thomson, G.R., 1996. Persistent infection of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) with SAT-type foot-and-mouth disease viruses: rate of fixation of mutations, antigenic change and interspecies transmission. J. Gen. Virol. 77, 1457-1467.

Vosloo, W., Bastos, A.D., Michel, A. and Thomson, G.R, 2001. Tracing movement of African buffalo in southern Africa. Rev. sci. tech. Off. Int. Epiz. 20, 630-639.

W

Weddell, G.N., Yansura, D.G., Dowbenko, D.J., Hoatlin, M.E., Grubman, M.J., Moore, D.M. and Kleid, D.G., 1985. Sequence variation in the gene for the immunogenic capsid protein VP1 of foot-and-mouth disease virus type A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82, 2618-2622.

Woodbury, E.L., Samuel, A.R., Knowles, N.J., Hafez, S.M. and Kitching, R.P., 1994. Analysis of mixed foot-and-mouth disease virus infections in Saudi Arabia: prolonged circulation of an exotic serotype. Epidemiol. Infect. 112, 201-211.

X

Y

Z