Published Date: 2021-02-25 13:23:34
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - Iran: dog, juvenile, 1st rep, 2016
Archive Number: 20210225.8212791
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - IRAN: DOG, JUVENILE, 1ST REPORT, 2016
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Date: Wed 24 Feb 2021 [accessed]
Source: STAR-IDAZ International Research Consortium on Animal Health [edited]
A case report filed by scientists at The Pirbright Institute details the 1st instance of naturally acquired foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in dogs. In this unusual case reported in BMC Veterinary Research [see reference below], FMDV was identified in a sample of heart tissue received by Pirbright's diagnostic laboratory, the World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (WRLFMD). The sample was from one of 5 young dogs that had died after being fed the carcasses of lambs which died during an FMD outbreak on a farm in Iran.
As this is the 1st reported case of its kind, and given the widespread distribution of FMD in certain regions of the world, this presentation of the virus is assumed to be extremely rare.
The report contains no evidence that dogs are able to contract the disease from live infected animals or that they are capable of spreading the disease as a result of being infected. It does, however, further highlight the dangers of feeding livestock carcasses to other animals where FMD is in circulation. This is an extra consideration for the veterinary profession in countries where FMD is continuously present and where similar case presentations could arise.
Waters RA, Wadsworth J, Mioulet V, et al. Foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in the domestic dog (_Canis lupus familiaris_), Iran. BMC Vet Res. 2021 Feb 1; 17(1): 63. doi: 10.1186/s12917-021-02769-1. PMID: 33526020; PMCID: PMC7852191; https://bmcvetres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12917-021-02769-1
From the article above, we herewith present 2 copied segments: "Case presentation" and "Discussion and conclusions."
Five puppies died after being fed lamb carcasses, the lambs having died during an outbreak of FMD in Iran. Following a post-mortem examination, cardiac tissue from one of the dead puppies was subjected to virus isolation, antigen ELISA, real-time RT-PCR, sequencing and confocal microscopy to assess the presence and characteristics of any FMD virus. The virological and microscopic examination of the cardiac tissue provided evidence of FMD virus replication in the canine heart.
"Discussion and conclusions
In summary, the data presented here support the conclusion that canine fatalities occurred as a result of FMDV infection in puppies which had fed upon infected carcasses in an outbreak of serotype O FMDV in Iran. This represents the 1st description of natural infection of dogs by FMDV. Specifically, evidence is provided to show that FMDV can infect and damage the cardiac myocytes and was the cause of death in at least one of these animals. The wider epidemiological importance of this finding is unknown. However, wider awareness of this case report should ensure that provenance of FMDV infection is given greater consideration in scenarios entailing canine deaths associated with FMD outbreaks in endemic countries. Importantly there is a clear risk of feeding young dogs the carcasses of animals which have been infected with FMDV, and therefore this practice should be avoided."
The addressed FMD event dates back to February-March 2016; 2 of the affected puppies came from Esfahan Province and 3 from Kurdistan Province. All had similar cardiac lesions. One sample was submitted to WRL-FMD, Pirbright, signed as IRN/9/2016. Its further analysis was carried out while confirming the canine tissue and excluding incidental contamination. The virus was identified as FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2. Virus strains of a similar profile are currently circulating in the region (see commentary in 20210216.8194894).
The reported exceptional case does not imply that dogs play any role in the epidemiology of FMD, on top of being mechanical transporters/movers of contaminated material (such as placentae, organic waste, offal) from infected premises. - Mod.AS
HealthMap/ProMED map of Iran: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/128]