Published Date: 2023-01-16 21:29:30 GMT
Subject: PRO/AH> Foot & mouth disease - Jordan (03): livestock, st O, genotyped, control, RFI
Archive Number: 20230116.8707809
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - JORDAN (03): LIVESTOCK, SEROTYPE O, GENOTYPED, CONTROL, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Sat 14 Jan 2023
Source: Nabd News [in Arabic, machine trans., edited]
Sheep and cow breeders in Jordan have affirmed the success of the first national campaign to vaccinate against foot and mouth disease [FMD], which was launched by the Ministry of Agriculture in the last months of 2022, noting that it contributed to limiting this disease, as only minor infections were recorded among some farmers due to non-compliance with appropriate immunization dates and poor biosecurity measures applied in some farms.
Laith Al-Hajj, head of the Coalition of Cattle Breeders Association, said that the vaccines that were used in the immunization campaign are locally registered and approved vaccines for vaccination against FMD, and that they are used in a number of countries in the region.
He appreciated the efforts of the ministry in vaccinating herds, stressing the success of the campaign in achieving its goals and the ministry's follow-up to the regulatory procedures for the sector, including the implementation of national immunization campaigns to control diseases, indicating that there are understandings with the ministry on several points that support the success and sustainability of preventive measures aimed at controlling epidemic diseases.
For his part, the head of the Sheep Breeders Association in Karak Governorate, Zaal Al-Qualit, stated that the Ministry of Agriculture's procedures and the immunization campaign helped to dry up the sources of this infection, immunize the flocks of sheep, and reduce costs for farmers from the impact of the infection in particular, as no injuries were recorded in the governorate. He pointed to the ministry's continued interest in regulating the livestock sector and providing vaccines within the coming months to ensure that sheep remain free of FMD. He added that a farmer who is not committed to giving vaccinations according to their approved schedule could record infections in his flock in the future.
Head of the Tafila Farmers Union, Arafat Al-Marayat, stressed the success of the vaccination campaign that the ministry carried out during the past months, which included trained and specialized teams and the availability of vaccines. They helped in immunizing the flocks of sheep in the governorate, benefitting the breeders and serving the export reputation of the local sheep product desired in the region's markets.
For their part, the senior sheep breeders and exporters in Mafraq, the farmers Abdullah Al-Mashagbeh and Hussein Al-Azamat, confirmed the success of the vaccination campaign in Mafraq Governorate, especially since their holdings included more than 10 000 heads of sheep, and their exports amounted to 100 000 heads of fattening sheep, and that no FMD infection has been recorded in vaccinated flocks.
We appreciated the great efforts of the Ministry's teams in dealing with these large numbers in a short period, and this helped to immunize the herds and preserve the health of the sheep and their suitability for export.
The Ministry affirms its keenness to preserve the health and safety of livestock and take a strategic approach within the national plan for sustainable agriculture to control FMD and apply international standards of the World Organization for Animal Health [AOAH] by bearing financial expenses to implement national vaccination campaigns that include the holdings of sheep, goats, and cows. The vaccines are approved and registered for use by a specialized technical committee that includes vaccinologists and academics who consult international experts, carry follow-up of global reports from specialized organizations which study the efficacy and safety of the vaccines, and carry out field studies, while taking into consideration the rate of protection expected to be conferred by the selected vaccines against FMD virus strains present in Jordan. Such data are established by international reference laboratories for FMD and its vaccines.
To allow easy availability of the vaccine, vaccines produced in several countries, distributed through several local companies, are registered. This provides easy access to the continuous immunization mechanism according to the instructions for each vaccine as recommended by the manufacturer through the registration committee.
The ministry calls on livestock breeders to maintain contact with the livestock departments deployed in the agricultural directorates in all governorates and districts, with the aim of obtaining advice and guidance on the application of biosecurity measures and preventive measures that will maintain the safety of herds. The ministry emphasizes that the second phase of the vaccination campaign will be implemented during the second quarter of 2023, giving a booster dose of the vaccine. Livestock breeders should register in a timely manner at the agricultural directorates to get their animals vaccinated and secure herd immunity.
[Jordan's livestock population includes (2020 data) a total of about 78 000 cattle, 3.1 million sheep, and 800 000 goats. Cattle, and particularly dairy cattle, are highly vulnerable to FMD, and in need of solid immunity. It is not surprising that concerns about alleged vaccine coverage/efficacy came from Zarka, Jordan's top cattle breeder/holder (about 43% of the country's total; see 20230110.8707716). They were combined with concerns about the introduction of (imported?) calves to fattening farms, adjacent to the dairy farms. The other cattle governorates are Mafraq, Irbid, Amman, and Balqa. The 3 governorates mentioned above, Kark, Mafraq, and Taffila, where the vaccination was credited as satisfactory, are mainly sheep-raising regions.
From a reliable source we have noted that the FMD virus strain currently circulating in Jordan has been genotyped O/ME-SA/PanAsia2/ANT-10, seemingly similar to last year's (2022) strain which circulated in Jordan, the Palestinian Authority (PA), and Israel. We have also noted that an FMD vaccine distributed by the Ministry of Agriculture is BIOAFTOGEN (manufactured by Biogenesis Bago/Argentina).
The named vaccine (O1 Campos, Biogénesis Bagó) presented an adequate R1 value and the highest neutralisation index against FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia2/ANT-10 when compared to 5 other commercial FMD vaccines (2 producers), in a vaccine matching test by WRLFMD (World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Pirbright laboratory), completed on 13 Jul 2022. The 6 inactivated vaccines were matched against 2 isolates of FMDV O/ME-SA/PanAsia2/ANT-10 from Israel, collected in 2022 from cattle. The other 5 vaccines were O-3039 (Boehringer Ingelheim), O Campos (Boehringer Ingelheim), O Manisa (Boehringer Ingelheim), O Panasia 2 (Boehringer Ingelheim), and O/TUR/5/09 (MSD Animal Health). The detailed results and their interpretation are available at https://www.wrlfmd.org/sites/world/files/quick_media/WRLFMD-2022-000011-ISR-VMR-O-O_001.pdf. They were presented in 20230110.8707716.
FMD presents a clear seasonality in the Eastern Mediterranean; according to data from Israel, based upon observations accumulating since 1948, the virus starts its circulation (primary outbreaks) in November. Throughout the years, the highest number of primary outbreaks have been registered in January, followed by March and April. The lowest number (1) was registered in June. No primary cases have been recorded between July and October; the background to this pattern is yet to be unravelled.
Official confirmation of the sero- and genotyping results, including details of the tests performed, will be welcomed. - Mod.AS]