Published Date: 2023-05-24 22:42:34 BST
Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Foot & mouth disease - North Korea: (PB, PM) cattle, susp, RFI
Archive Number: 20230524.8710226
FOOT & MOUTH DISEASE - NORTH KOREA: (PYONGAN-BUKTO, PYONGAN-NAMDO) CATTLE, SUSPECTED, REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
A ProMED-mail post http://www.promedmail.org
ProMED-mail is a program of the International Society for Infectious Diseases http://www.isid.org
Date: Tue 23 May 2023
Source: SPN (Seoul Pyongyang News) [in Korean, machine trans., edited]
It is reported that foot-and-mouth disease [FMD] has occurred and is spreading in Pyongan Province, North Korea. A source from South Pyongan Province and North Pyongan Province said on 21 May 2023: "Recently, symptoms such as death of cows or blisters in the mouth and teats were found at farms in Uiju County, North Pyongan Province, Yongcheon, and Anju City, South Pyongan Province." He told SPN Seoul Pyongyang News.
The source said, "As FMD broke out at a local farm, we are concerned that it is another big bad news for North Korea's livestock sector since the African swine fever outbreak that started in Wusi County, Jagang Province in January 2019."
However, "the North Korean authorities did not report this to the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH), but left it to the local veterinary quarantine officials, saying it was a 'foot disease' and neglecting it," he informed the local situation.
In 2019, in Jagang-do and Yanggang-do regions, many Burimso (cows) died due to "foot disease", causing great damage to farms.
In South Korea, an outbreak of FMD has recently occurred in Chungcheong-do, and emergency quarantine efforts are underway.
[Byline: Ahn Yoon-seok]
Date: Tue 23 May 2023
Source: Daily North Korea [edited]
Just 10 days after South Korea confirmed the 1st cases of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in more than 4 years on farms in South Chungcheong Province, Seoul Pyongyang News (SPN) has reported that cows in North Korea's 2 Pyongan provinces are also showing symptoms of FMD. The disease is a severe, highly contagious, transboundary virus in cloven-hoofed animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, deer and goats. Its fatality rate ranges between 5% and 55%.
A source in North Korea covering North and South Pyongan provinces told SPN on 21 May 2023 that "symptoms such as blisters on mouths and teats" were observed on cows on farms in Uiju County in North Pyongan Province and Anju City in South Pyongan Province, and that some of them had already died.
An infection with FMD manifests itself by fevers and blister-like sores on the sick animal's tongue and lips, in the mouth, on the teats and between its hooves, causing it severe pain and distress. Though the disease is usually only fatal in young or weak livestock, it often leaves recovered animals weakened, debilitated and severely limited in productivity.
A widespread outbreak of FMD could therefore be another major economic setback for North Korea's already struggling agriculture and economy.
If the report is true, the North Korean regime faces a major dilemma: Under World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) guidelines, it would have to publicly disclose the outbreak, order affected livestock producers to slaughter all sick, recovered and FMD-susceptible animals, and comply with strict quarantine regulations [see comment]. However, this would affect the North Korean economy, food supplies and livestock trade significantly -- consequences the drought- and sanctions-stricken country cannot really afford.
In addition, most collective farms lack appropriate resources -- such as disinfectants and quicklime -- to prevent an outbreak of the disease. In addition, they might not be sufficiently educated about the virus and the way it spreads, and often assume that their animals will recover on their own.
According to SNP's source, the North Korean authorities thus chose "not to report the situation to the World Organization for Animal Health," but instead only "called it a 'paw disease,' and neglected it by leaving the treatment to local veterinary quarantine officials."
In 2011, North Korea state media announced that about 10 000 pigs and cows had contracted FMD, several thousand of which eventually died. A national committee for emergency veterinary disinfection was established back then, and a nationwide "emergency disinfection" was ordered.
Three years later, in 2014, the WOAH was informed of a new outbreak in North Korea, which began in a pig factory in Pyongyang on 8 Jan 2014 and spread to a total of 17 other counties in both the capital (Sadong, Ryokpo, Sunan, Rakrang) and North Hwanghae Province (Junghwa, Kangnam) in the following months. A total of 3280 pigs reportedly died at that time -- 369 from the disease itself; 2911 more had to be slaughtered.
The last nationwide spread of FMD in North Korea was reported in January 2019 and resulted in the deaths of many working cattle on collective farms -- in part because "no proactive measures have been taken," as a reporting partner in North Pyongan Province told Daily NK at the time.
[Byline: Laura Geigenberger]
[The statement "Under (WOAH) guidelines, [North Korea] would have to publicly disclose the outbreak, order affected livestock producers to slaughter all sick, recovered and FMD-susceptible animals, and comply with strict quarantine regulations" is somewhat inaccurate. Indeed, all WOAH's member countries, including North Korea, are obliged to immediately report the suspicion, let alone confirmation, of FMD (and other emerging listed diseases) outbreaks. But the above-mentioned control measures are compulsory only for international trade certification, requiring a certain official status such as "FMD-free country (or zone)" with/without vaccination, etc. Hence, countries that do not export live FMD-susceptible species or their products may decide to refrain from inclusion of culling of infected, recovered or contact animals in their FMD-control policy. Indeed, FMD may cause considerable, at times even devastating, economic losses. However, the death rate in adult animals will, in most events, not exceed 4%-5%, although some susceptible breeds of dairy cattle may suffer higher losses. On the other hand, juveniles, in particular lambs, kids and piglets, may present extremely high death rates. To prevent FMD, mass preventive vaccinations are widely applied.
"WOAH Members' official FMD status map", last updated March 2023, is available at https://www.woah.org/app/uploads/2023/03/fmd-world-eng-2023.jpg. Please note that nearly all African and the majority of Asian countries are "without an official status for FMD".
Although the media sources of the above reports are located in South Korea, allowing politically tainted news, the odds that the above information lacks accuracy are not likely, especially in light of the continuing spread of FMD serotype O reported from South Korea. - Mod.AS
North Pyongan Province, North Korea: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8710226,16591
South Pyongan Province, North Korea: https://promedmail.org/promed-post?place=8710226,16590]